Apple Varieties

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Variety List of Apple Trees

Apple Pyrus malus. Rose Family. - Apple Recipes

More than 5000 apple varieties are grown worldwide, but recently 15 varieties have accounted for 90% of United States sales.

At one time, North America had over 17,000 apple varieties populating habitats from coast to coast. But in the 2001 Fruit, Berry and Nut Inventory published by Seed Savers Exchange (Whealy, 2001), the number of apple varieties available to Americans through nursery stocks had dwindled to 1,500. The continued tragedy is that in 2009, only 11 apples comprise 90% of what Americans access and enjoy retail, which makes it more end more important for people to grow and enjoy their own heirloom varieties. See a Longer List: Apple_Variety_List (without pictures)


Abermarle Pippin

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Adam's Pearmain

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a medium-sized, very conical fruit with dull crimson-red skin covered with a fine gray-brown russet coat. The creamy white flesh is crisp, tender and firm with a dry, nutty flavor. Ripens mid-late October.

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Anna

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Yellow variety with red blush has a sweet, crisp flavor. Keeps two months refrigerated.

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Arkansas Black

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Arkansas Black - Originated from a Winesap seedling in an orchard in Bentonville, Arkansas in 1870. Arkansas Black is a beautiful dark red to almost black apple and considered to be one of the best storage apples.


Click here: Arkansas Black for more info and photos.

Arlet

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Also known as Swiss Gourmet. text here.


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Ashmead's Kernel

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Winter. Unknown Parentage. Glouster, England, about 1700. Possibly a seedling from Nonpareil.

Click here: Ashmeads Kernel for more info and photos.

Aurora Golden Gala

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Baldwin

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Baldwin was the preeminent commercial dessert apple of the country, mostly in New England, until a harsh winter in 1933-34 killed most of the trees.

The skin is thick, on the tough side. Flesh is yellow, crisp, coarse and juicy, with a spicy character that is good in cider and pies.


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Belle de Boskoop

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Probably a chance seedling from Holland, 1860. May also be a synonym or mutation of Montfort. Every chef in Europe knows Boskoop. It cooks beautifully. Long the farm apple of Europe; every backyard had a Boskoop. Big blocky somewhat lumpy green fruit largely patched and netted with russet.

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Black Oxford

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This outstanding apple, a favorite long ago around much of Maine, has been making a huge comeback in the last 20 years. Medium-sized round fruit, deep purple with a blackish bloom. From a distance you might think you’d discovered a huge plum tree.

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Braeburn

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Braeburn*- Braeburn is a chance seedling from New Zealand's South Island, introduced in 1952.

Uncut, Braeburn may have a faintly cidery perfume. The skin is thin and seems to disappear in the mouth. The flesh is yellow-green to creamy yellow, breaking and crisp in texture. Braeburn offers a complex, sweet tart flavor, with a noticeably aromatic aftertaste.

When cooked, Braeburn turns simpler but doesn't go flat. As sauce it needs little or nothing in the way of added sweetening. Braeburn also keeps well in storage.


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Blue Pearmain

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Blue Pearmain - An old apple of uncertain origin, but probably American. It was noted by the Royal Horticultural Society of London in 1893 and widely grown in New York and New England in the 19th century. A large, slightly conical fruit with red and purplish-red striping and covered with a fine blue bloom. The delicate creamy-white flesh is tender, sweet and slightly aromatic.

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Calville Blanc

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Famous as a dessert and cooking apple for over 400 years. Steve Woods of Poverty Lane orchards in Lebanon, NH, called it “the best culinary apple in the world.” Large flattish pale green-yellow fruit with uneven lumpy ribs and a dotted orange-red blush. Creamy-white aromatic fine-grained juicy flesh with a sweet distinctive, effervescent flavor.

Smooth when baked. Recommended for vinegar, fresh cider and as a sharp (acid) component in fermented cider. Should be stored a month to reach peak flavor.


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Cornish Gilliflower

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Dull green with some dull brownish red and webbed with thin rough russet. Only in a rare year do a few develop clear dark red. Medium to large in size, round, conical shape, tapering at the nose to a 5-pointed base. It has always been considered a hight quality eating apple, possessing a sweet, rich flavor. Intensely flavored, rich and aromatic. Said to emit a clove fragrance when cut. Should be picked as late as possible.

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Cortland

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Excellent eating and cooking. Slow-oxidizing white flesh is very good in salads; fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy. Produces a surprisingly delightful cider, fresh or fermented, in a mix or even on its own. Vigorous tall upright spreading tree with reddish bark. Annual producer of heavy crops.

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Cox's Orange Pippin

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One of the best in quality of the English dessert apples; in season from late September to early winter. The fruit is of medium size or above medium, red and yellow. When highly colored it is attractive, with the red predominant. The tree is a moderate grower and productive.

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Crispin

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Crispin, or Mutsu, is a cross between Golden Delicious and Indo. It was developed in Japan in the 1930's and arrived in the United States in the late 1940's. The crisp, white flesh is juicy and has a touch of tartness, for an excellent dessert apple. In taste tests of Golden Delicious and apples descended from it, Mutsu scores on top. It does not make a particularly diverting pie. Sauce will have more flavor if you leave the peels on while cooking and then separate them with a strainer or colander. Mutsu is a worthwhile cider apple.

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Dabinett

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Tree of low vigor, does well with high fertility levels. Shade tolerant. Bears young and is a regular good producer.

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Duchess

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Empire

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Introduced in 1966 by Cornell University's Geneva breeding program, Empire is a cross between Red Delicious and MacIntosh. It is red, round, medium sized and full of eye-appeal. It is most similar to MacIntosh in flavor, with juicy, creamy white flesh that is nice and crisp. Empire is more sweet than tart for those who shy away from a tart apple.

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Fameuse

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Introduced to the United States via Canada in 1739; however, this variety originated in France in the 1600's. It is one of the oldest varieties on record. The flesh is pure white giving it the name of SNOW APPLE. It is an ancestor to the McINTOSH variety.

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Freedom

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All-purpose variety from the same disease-resistant-apple breeding program that developed Liberty. Medium-large round-conic smooth-skinned fruit entirely covered with bright-red stripes. Juicy firm spicy-flavored flesh.

Keeps until New Years. Vigorous spreading productive annually bearing precocious tree.


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Fuji

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Fuji* - Fuji was developed from American parents, Ralls Janet and Red Delicious. Not a particularly gorgeous variety, it signals the reemergence of taste and texture as the main reasons for growing an apple.

The cream-colored , firm, fine-grained flesh seems something special from the first bite, as it fills the mouth with sweetness and juice. In taste tests Fuji consistently scores at or near the top, and among late-maturing varieties it is a standout.

Fuji is regarded as the best keeper of any sweet variety, and the apples retain their toothsome firmness for up to a year in refrigeration.


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Gala

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Gala* - Gala is a strikingly attractive apple. The bright yellow skin is finely stippled with red, as if airbrushed , and the result is a near - neon intensity. Gala was developed in New Zealand by J.H. Kidd, crossing Golden Delicious and his own Kidd's Orange Red.

The pale, creamy flesh is crisp and dense, with a mild, sweet flavor and good aroma. The fruit is not large, but medium in size. In taste tests, Gala easily outscores McIntosh and is considered more sprightly than Golden Delicious. When cooked, Gala strikes some people as bland, but it can be dried with good results. Gala is also used in many cider blends. This apple stores well when refrigerated.


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Golden Delicious

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Golden Delicious* - Golden Delicious began as a chance seedling, perhaps of Grimes Golden , on a farmer's hillside near Bomont, West Virginia. Golden Delicious is not related to the red variety of that name. This is a very easy apple to like. The skin is thin; the flesh, firm and crisp and juicy. Flavor and aroma are unmistakable, without being particularly assertive. Even the shape is somewhat agreeable: large, tall and conical. Golden Delicious strikes some cooks as too timid for the kitchen, but it can be used for pies and sauce with little or no sugar. Its distinctive aroma carries over into cider. Golden Delicious should store well if refrigerated but the skin will shrivel if kept at room temperature.

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Golden Dorset

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Golden Russet

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Golden Russet - Winter. Uncertain origin. Thought to be from England, New York or New England.

The champagne of cider apples, ripening late in fall, when the root cellar has finally cooled off and the best cider is ready to be made: sweet, balanced, thick and smooth. Excellent eating; keeps all winter and well into spring. Good for drying.

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Granny Smith

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Gravenstein

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Gravenstein Apple Late Summer. Thought to be of 17th century Italian or German origin. Brought to the U.S. in the early 19th century.

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Grimes Golden

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Medium-sized roundish fruit with opaque yellow skin, scattered with grey russet dots and an occasional faint blush. Thought to be a parent of Golden Delicious. Tart citrusy crisp dense firm fruit is excellent for dessert and cooking: wonderful spicy fresh eating and wonderful apple sauce. Makes a thick sweet cider and a good single-variety hard cider: light and fruity.

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Holstein

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Honeycrisp

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Honeycrisp Apple Winter. MN 1711 (Keepsake x open pollinated). U Minn, 1991. Medium-large fruit, described as “explosively crisp,” mottled and striped red over yellow. Cream-colored flesh is sweet and juicy with hard snapping-crisp texture.

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Idared

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Idared * - This cross of Jonathon and Wagener was introduced in 1942. Despite its origins in Idaho, Idareds are planted mostly in the East and the Midwest.

Uncut, Idared breathes as a sweet perfume. The crisp pale yellow-green flesh is juicy, fine-grained, tender, a bit tart and aromatic, with a taste something like Jonathon. Compared with other late-maturing varieties, Idared has not scoreed on top as a dessert apple. But it keeps its shape and flavor particularly well in pies, cooks down into a nicely colored sauce (leave the peels on and strain), and is often used in apple butter.


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Jonagold

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Jonagold* - The cross of Jonathon and Golden Delicious was released in 1968 and since then has become extremely popular across Europe.

With its aroma of Golden Delicious and the sprightliness of Jonathon, Jonagold is an excellent sweet-tart dessert apple. The texture of the creamy yellow flesh is noticeably crisp and juicy. In a poll of nineteen apple experts in nine countries, Jonagold scored as the overall favorite. The fruit makes fair sauce and a good pie. If picked on time, Jonagolds store fairly well.


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Jonathan

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King David

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Lady

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Liberty

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Lodi

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Macoun

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Macoun* - Macoun has fans who hunt roadside stands watch fall for a bushel or two. It is a prodigy of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station and was introduced in 1923. The apple has some resemblance, in taste and appearance to its parent McIntosh (bred with Jersey Black) but with a darker red over the underlying green and a flavor that many prefer to Mac.

The white flesh is firm, aromatic, and juicy. This is a good pie apple.


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Maiden Blush

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Maiden Blush - is one of the oldest American apples. It is rather flat and has a thin, but tough, smooth, waxy yellow skin with a crimson blush. It is adequate for cooking, drying or making cider, but leaves something to be desired when eaten fresh. It is very hearty. The original tree traces back to New jersey and was described by a well known orchardist in 1817.


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McIntosh

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McIntosh* - This was introduced in 1870 and went on to much fame and crossbreeding. McIntosh is the best-selling apple in the northeastern United States and in Canada.

The apple has white, tender, crisp flesh that's spicy, highly aromatic and full of juice. The characteristic flavor carries over into sauce, but in a pie the slices lose their shape. Macs are the principal cider apple in the Northeast.

Beware of McIntosh as winter wears on; if not stored well, the apples may turn mealy.


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Northern Spy

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Northern Spy Apple - Winter. Chance seedling. East Bloomfield, NY, about 1800. A bronze plaque marks the site of the original tree of this former commercial giant, still a renowned favorite.

Very large delectable all-purpose fruit has yellow background covered all over with pink and light red stripes and wash. Very juicy and tender. Northern Spy is thin-skinned and tender-fleshed, requiring gentle handling, which is why it isn't found in many markets today. Even when the tender skin bruises, it keeps extremely well.

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Orlean Reinette

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Ozark Gold

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Very similar to Golden Delicious. Flavor is sweet, honeyed, very juicy with little acidity.

The tree has wide angle branches, is very hardy and disease resistant. Bears at a young age.


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Paradise

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Pink Lady

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Oblong, green fruit turns yellow at maturity and is overlaid with pink or light red. Fine-grained, white flesh. Thin skin bruises easily. Fruit will store for six to eight months in common storage.

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Pink Pearl

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Pink-fleshed, pearly-skinned apple. Tart to sweet-tart taste.

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Pound

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Ralls Janet

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Also known as: Neverfail, Jefferson Pippin, Royal Janette, Ralls Genet.

"An apple with a long, convoluted history, Ralls Janet first gained attention in 1800 where it was grown on the farm of Caleb Ralls in Amherst County, Virginia. Ralls Janet dates back to the late 18th century and was reportedly named by Thomas Jefferson. Fruit is medium to large with thin greenish-yellow skin covered with pinkish red and overlaid with dark red striping. The yellowish flesh is fine-grained, crisp and juicy. Ripens in October and is an excellent keeper."


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Rambo

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Fruit with a pale yellow skin streaked faint red by the sun. Tender, sub-acid flesh. It is lightly ribbed on the body and prominently ribbed at the eye. Usually asymmetrical in shape. The yellowish flesh is fine grained and firm with a subacid, slightly sweet flavor

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Ramey York

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Red Astrachan

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Eating, cooking and cider apple. Medium sized, crimson coloured, flesh is juicy, tart and crisp with good flavor. Very short storage.


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Red Delicious

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Red Delicious* - Red Delicious is a marketer's ideal : as intensely red as the apple in Sleeping Beauty, instantly recognizable, tall and wasp-waisted, gorgeous and big! Riding on these qualities, the variety has pushed regional favorites aside. The skin is thick and bitter and has to be chewed vigorously. At its best the yellow flesh can be juicy and somewhat tart, and highly aromatic. this apple does not hold up well when cooked.


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Redcort

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Redcort

Redcort apples originated in Malboro, New York. Redcort's are a limb mutation of the popular Cortland apple. The Redcort is a crisp, sweet apple good for eating.


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Rein des Reinette

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Gourmet dessert apple. Flavor on the sweet side.

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Rhode Island Greening

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Rhode Island Greening Apple Fall-Winter. Green’s Inn, near Newport, RI, about 1650. Also known as Greening. One of the most important apples of the 19th century and the classic New England cooking apple.

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Ribston Pippin

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Yellow, flushed bright orange, red blush. Hard, crisp, fine-grained, sugary, rich and aromatic.


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Rome

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Rome* - Rome was a chance of nature that originated on the banks of the Ohio River and dates back to before the Civil War. Rome is a thick-skinned fruit that makes good eating but finds better use as a baker and in cider. The flesh, once you bite through it , is crisp, firm, greenish white and mildly tart.


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Roxbury Russet

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Roxbury Russet* - Roxbury Russet may be America's first pomological achievement, having been developed and named in Roxbury, MA in the early 1600's. A look at one suggests how the idea of a good apple has changed over the centuries, Roxbury presents a dull green, heavily marked face to the world. But the crisp, tart apple has more personality than some of today's supermarket standards. Its yellow-green flesh is firm and course textured. Roxbury is suited to eating fresh and cooking and long has had a reputation as a fine cider apple. As with most older varieties, it keeps well for months.

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Seek No Further

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Creamy yellow fruit streaked red with some russeting. Crisp, tender, juicy and aromatic flesh with distinctive flavor. Not recommended for cooking.

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Sheepnose

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A dessert apple which is very distinct in color, form and flavor. The color is yellowish or greenish, sometimes almost complete covered with red, which in highly colored specimens becomes dull purplish and very dark, as recognized in the name "Black" Gilliflower. The flesh at its best is but moderately juicy and soon becomes dry, but it has a peculiar aroma which is pleasing to many. It is not sour enough to be very valuable for cooking, but it is sometimes used for baking.

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Smokehouse

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Smokehouse originated with William Gibbons at Lampeter Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania where the original tree grew near his smokehouse. It was brought to commercial notice by 1837, although it had been locally propagate prior to that.

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Sops of Wine

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Old English culinary and cider apple. Fruit medium, skin greenish yellow flushed purple red. Flesh soft, fine stained pink. Flavor aromatic, subacid, vinous.

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Spigold

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Spigold* - This large apple might also have been named Synergy for the way it borrows from and improves upon its genetic donors, Northern Spy and Golden Delicious. Within a relatively short period of time Spigold has won a large following. It offers an excellent combination of Spy's crisp, sprightly flesh and the slightly herbal aromatic sweetness of its golden-hued parent. The result is a complex flavor that makes this apple stand out even in taste tests of a hundred varieties Spigold keeps up to three months when refrigerated.


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Spitzenburg

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AKA The Esopus Spitzenburg. In the nineteenth century, the Spitzenburg was the most universally acclaimed of all apple varieties. America's first published pomologist, William Coxe, said it "possesses great beauty, and exquisite flavor;" A. J. Downing, a singular figure in the history of United States horticulture, described it as "a handsome, truly delicious apple . . . unsurpassed as a dessert fruit;"

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Starkey

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Seedling of Ribston Pippin. Vassalboro, ME, 1820. My favorite fall fresh-eating apple, its exquisite combination of crisp sweetness and tartness reminiscent of a perfectly ripe Concord grape. Medium-sized roundish fruit is rosy red, covered almost completely with fine lines, shades and stripes of darker reds and sprinkled with pronounced white dots.

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Starking

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Wealthy

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Superb all-purpose fall apple, one of the most famous of all hardy varieties. With its perfect texture and complex flavors, Wealthy is considered to be one of the best apples.

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Williams Pride

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Probably the most popular summer apple among the newly developed disease-resistant introductions. It’s actually crisp, which is rare that time of year. Deep solid purple roundish-conic irregularly shaped fruit, highlighted with areas of glowing rosy red and covered with a thin bloom. Light cream-colored flesh with red staining just under the skin is firm, crisp and very juicy, with a nice acidic blend of tart and sweet, reminiscent of Fameuse.

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Winesap

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Winesap is one of the oldest and, at one time, most popular apples in America. It is thought to have originated in New Jersey and was commercially important there as early as 1817. These days, it is known synonymously with it's child, Stayman Winesap. Winesap is not a large apple. It is conical to roundish with a medium-thick skin that is deep red with some striping and blotching or dark purple. The flesh is tinged yellow, very firm and coarse, and moderately crisp. It is very juicy and sprightly subacid in flavor, which some say has a hint of wine flavor.


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Winter Banana

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Winter Banana* - Is the beautiful lemon yellow, waxy skin responsible for the name? Or does the apple really taste like a banana, as some commentators insist?

The skin is highlights with anything from a pale pink blush to an intense rouge that looks as though it had been spray painted. The apple s often peppered with flecks of near black and bright carmine. A further distinguishing mark may be suture line.

The uncut fruit has a faint, flowery perfume. Inside, the firm flesh is mild a, crisp and juicy. Winter Banana becomes rather unexciting when cooked but it makes a good cider apple.


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Wolf River

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Extremely large—even huge—round-oblate fruit. Pale yellow-green skin mostly covered with pink, deep red and bright crimson. Almost always has a vivid yellowish-greenish russety splash around the stem. Creamy-white coarse firm-but-tender flesh. Aromatic subacid flavor is very good for cooking. Makes an excellent baked apple and a decent pie. Not much good for fresh eating, but particularly tasty when dried. .

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Yellow Newton Pippin

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Yellow Newtown Pippin is a very old variety of apple. It was the first American apple which attracted attention in Europe and was sent there commercially by Benjamin Franklin as early as 1759. Thomas Jefferson wrote of it in his "Garden Book" in 1773 and noted in 1778 that he had Newtown Pippin growing at Monticello. Yellow Newtown Pippin is a long-keeping variety, but is difficult to grow due to its high susceptibility to apple scab (a fungal disease). The fruit is medium to large and shape is variable, usually roundish and oblate. Flesh is yellowish, crisp, tender, moderately fine-grained, juicy, subacid, and aromatic. The term, pippin, refers to the origin of the tree being from a chance seedling rather than from a deliberate cross of varieties or grafting of a sport (mutation) from a known tree

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Yellow Transparent

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Heavy annual cropper of exceptionally early apples, some years in central Maine as early as the first week of August. Presumably called ‘Transparent’ because you practically see through the clear light yellow smooth waxy tender skin. White juicy sweetly subacid flesh. The soft ripe fruit makes a magnificent purée-type applesauce.

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